Saturday, January 11, 2014

Push Bike Light

Automatic switch-on when it gets dark, 6V or 3V battery operation
This design was primarily intended to allow automatic switch-on of push-bike lights when it gets dark. Obviously, it can be used for any other purpose involving one or more lamps to be switched on and off depending of light intensity. Power can be supplied by any type of battery suitable to be fitted in your bike and having a voltage in the 3 to 6 Volts range.

The Photo resistor R1 should be fitted into the box containing the complete circuit, but a hole should be made in a convenient side of the box to allow the light hitting the sensor. Trim R2 until the desired switching threshold is reached. The setup will require some experimenting, but it should not be difficult.

Push-Bike Light Circuit Diagram
Push-Bike Light Circuit Diagram

R1_____________Photo resistor (any type)
R2______________22K 1/2W Trimmer Cermet or Carbon type
R3_______________1K 1/4W Resistor
R4_______________2K7 1/4W Resistor
R5_____________330R 1/4W Resistor (See Notes)
R6_______________1R5 1W Resistor (See Notes)
D1____________1N4148 75V 150mA Diode
Q1_____________BC547 45V 200mA NPN Transistor
Q2_____________BD438 45V 4A PNP Transistor
LP1____________Filament Lamp(s) (See Notes)
SW1_____________SPST Toggle or Slider Switch
B1______________6V or 3V Battery (See Notes)

  • In this circuit, the maximum current and voltage delivered to the lamp(s) are limited mainly by R6 (that cant be omitted if a clean and reliable switching is expected). Therefore, the Ohms Law must be used to calculate the best voltage and current values of the bulbs.
  • For example: at 6V supply, one or more 6V bulbs having a total current drawing of 500mA can be used, but for a total current drawing of 1A, 4.5V bulbs must be chosen, as the voltage drop across R6 will become 1.5V. In this case, R6 should be a 2W type.
  • At 3V supply, R6 value can be lowered to 1 or 0.5 Ohm and the operating voltage of the bulbs should be chosen accordingly, by applying the Ohms Law.
  • Example: Supply voltage = 3V, R6 = 1R, total current drawing 600mA. Choose 2.2V bulbs as the voltage drop caused by R6 will be 0.6V.
  • At 3V supply, R5 value must be changed to 100R.
  • Stand-by current is less than 500µA, provided R2 value after trimming is set at about 5K or higher: therefore, the power switch SW1 can be omitted. If R2 value is set below 5K the stand-by current will increase substantially.
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Friday, January 10, 2014

Video Line Driver

This circuit is a video line driver specifically intended for use with a single-ended power supply. As a matter of fact, the synchronised outputs of a line driver for composite-video signals go negative with respect to ground. In order to be able to process these negative signals in a circuit powered from a single-ended supply, it is necessary to AC-couple the input of the opamp as well as level-shift the signal in the positive direction.

Video Line Driver Circuit diagram:
Video Line Driver-Circuit Diagram

The input is terminated into a 75 Ω resistor (R1). From here, the signal passes through AC-coupling capacitor C2 and is applied to potential divider R2-R3, which provides the necessary DC-offset. The shift into the positive direction amounts to +1.7 V, with the values shown in the schematic. To avoid any misunderstandings we should add that this value is fairly critical. Deviating from the values shown can lead to distortion in the complementary input stage of the opamp that has been used here, and this of course, has to be avoided.

Video Line Driver PCB-Layout :

Because we provided the circuit with its own voltage regulator circuit (IC2), just about any mains adapter will suffice for the power supply. The current consumption is less than 20 mA. The construction of the line driver using the accompanying printed circuit board layout is no more than a simple, routine job.

Parts List :
R1,R7 = 75Ω
R2...R4 = 4kΩ7
R5,R6 = 1kΩ
C1,C4,C5,C7C10,C12 =
C2 = 47µF 16V radial
C3,C11 = 10µF 6 V radial
C6 = 220µF 6 V radial
C8 = 1000 µF 6V radial
C9 = 100µF 16V radial
D1 = 1N4001
IC1 = OPA353UA
IC2 = 78L05
PC1-PC6 = PCB solder pin
Case, e.g., Hammond type
Copyright : Elektor

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Keypad Controlled Digital Electronic Lock

The digital lock shown below uses 4 common logic ICs to allow controlling a relay by entering a 4 digit number on a keypad. The first 4 outputs from the CD4017 decade counter (pins 3,2,4,7) are gated together with 4 digits from a keypad so that as the keys are depressed in the correct order, the counter will advance.

As each correct key is pressed, a low level appears at the output of the dual NAND gate producing a high level at the output of the 8 input NAND at pin 13. The momentary high level from pin 13 activates a one shot circuit which applies an approximate 80 millisecond positive going pulse to the clock line (pin 14) of the decade counter which advances it one count on the rising edge.

Digital Electronic Lock Circuit Diagram
Digital Electronic Lock Circuit Diagram
A second monostable, one shot circuit is used to generate an approximate 40 millisecond positive going pulse which is applied to the common point of the keypad so that the appropriate NAND gate will see two logic high levels when the correct key is pressed (one from the counter and the other from the key).

The inverted clock pulse (negative going) at pin 12 of the 74C14 and the positive going keypad pulse at pin 6 are gated together using two diodes as an AND gate (shown in lower right corner). The output at the junction of the diodes will be positive in the event a wrong key is pressed and will reset the counter.

When a correct key is pressed, outputs will be present from both monostable circuits (clock and keypad) causing the reset line to remain low and allowing the counter to advance. However, since the keypad pulse begins slightly before the clock, a 0.1uF capacitor is connected to the reset line to delay the reset until the inverted clock arrives.

The values are not critical and various other timing schemes could be used but the clock signal should be slightly longer than the keypad pulse so that the clock signal can mask out the keypad and avoid resetting the counter in the event the clock pulse ends before the keypad pulse. The fifth output of the counter is on pin 10, so that after four correct key entries have been made, pin 10 will move to a high level and can be used to activate a relay, illuminate an LED, ect.

At this point, the lock can be reset simply by pressing any key. The circuit can be extended with additional gates (one more CD4011) to accept up to a 8 digit code. The 4017 counting order is 3 2 4 7 10 1 5 6 9 11 so that the first 8 outputs are connected to the NAND gates and pin 9 would be used to drive the relay or light.

The 4 additional NAND gate outputs would connect to the 4 remaining inputs of the CD4068 (pins 9,10,11,12). The circuit will operate from 3 to 12 volts on 4000 series CMOS but only 6 volts or less if 74HC parts are used. The circuit draws very little current (about 165 microamps) so it could be powered for several months on 4 AA batteries assuming only intermittent use of the relay.

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Build a Bootstrapped Amp Current Source Circuit Diagram

Build a Bootstrapped Amp Current Source Circuit Diagram. This circuit responds to the difference between Vj and V2. Rq on sets gain. Resistors XR2 and (1 -X) R2 produce the bootstrap effect. These two resistors convert the circuit`s output voltage to a current. IC1 and IC2 are Burr-Brown OPA2107 or equal.

Bootstrapped Amp Current Source Circuit Diagram

Build a Bootstrapped Amp Current Source Circuit Diagram
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